eGFI - Dream Up the Future Sign-up for The Newsletter  For Teachers Online Store Contact us Search
Read the Magazine
What's New?
Explore eGFI
Engineer your Path About eGFI
Overview Lesson Plans Class Activities Outreach Programs Web Resources Special Features K-12 Education News
  • Tag Cloud

  • What’s New?

  • Pages

  • RSS RSS

  • RSS Comments

  • Archives

  • Meta

Wizardly Wands

sparklers resize

TeachEngineering.org activity contributed by the National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers programs, University of Houston. Click HERE for additional Harry Potter engineering units.

Summary

High school students learn how common pop-culture references, specifically Harry Potter books, can relate to such core chemistry concepts as reaction rates and thermodynamics by making and demonstrating their own “magic wands” (sparklers). The activity concludes with a class duel — a face-off between wands of two different chemical compositions. This lab also can serve as a fun advanced placement course review.

Grade Level: 11-12

Time: 135 minutes over 2 days (90 minutes to make sparklers, 45 minutes to use in activity)

Engineering Connection

Pyrotechnics has been a part of human society for thousands of years—from signal flares to starburst chemistry. The scientific concepts embedded in this activity — reaction rates, Gibb’s free energy, process chemistry and metallurgy —are used by chemical, metallurgical, mechanical, and explosives engineers in the development of many materials, some of which become the ingredients in what we see as the “magic” of pyrotechnics.

 

Learning Objectives

After doing this activity, students should be able to:

  • Identify reaction products from a reaction description.
  • Calculate and determine whether a reaction is spontaneous using standard thermodynamic data.
  • Infer reaction spontaneity by applying definitions of enthalpy, entropy, and Gibb’s free energy.
  • Understand what is meant by spontaneous reaction and how this relates to reactivity when multiple elements are involved.
  • Determine the difference between kinetics and thermodynamics.
  • Manipulate chemical reactions and conduct stoichiometric calculations.
  • Identify the importance of oxidizers and reducers in high-intensity reactions.

Pre-Requisite Knowledge

This activity is designed for Advanced Placement classes. Students must have been introduced to concepts in thermodynamics, stoichiometry, reaction types, oxidation reduction, and kinetics. Additionally, students must have taken a laboratory safety exam and be familiar with all rules and regulations.

Standards

Next Generation Science Standards

  • Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. (Grades 9 – 12)

International Technology and Engineering Educators Association

  • A. Asking questions and making observations helps a person to figure out how things work.
  • C. Troubleshooting is a way of finding out why something does not work so that it can be fixed.
  • Q. Malfunctions of any part of a system may affect the function and quality of the system.

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5whe9XtdQgw[/youtube]

Materials

For teacher introductory presentation:
  • movie clip of Harry choosing his wand from Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone (show students a portion of a video of the movie, or use the 3:55 minute video clip of that part of the movie on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5whe9XtdQgw
  • 1 or more sparklers, made with materials and procedures described in this document
  • lab surface/table with stationary lighter or Bunsen burner
  • whiteboard, markers, and erasers
Each group needs:
  • 9 g dextrin (starch)
  • 20 ml distilled water (available at grocery stores)
  • 20 cm length, 2 mm diameter Fe wire (iron wire available at hardware stores)
  • 150 ml beaker
  • stir rod
  • hot plate
  • test tube rack
  • 18 x 150 mm test tube
  • oven capable of 120° C
  • aprons, goggles, and fume hood
  • scale with weighing dishes, to measure ingredients
  • wash bottle, for cleaning glassware
  • hair dryer (optional)
  • W&C Student Lab Handout, one per student
Sparkler Chemistry 1: “Gryffindor” (ingredients for one wand)
  • 5 g iron powder (-200 mesh)
  • 1.0 g magnesium powder (-325 mesh)
  • 7.0 g aluminum powder (-40 + 325 mesh)
  • 6 g barium nitrate
  • 25 g potassium nitrate
NOTE: The following ingredients are available from Flinn Scientific, Inc., Alfa Aesar , or Sigma Aldrich:
  • powdered metals: iron, aluminum, magnesium
  • nitrates: potassium and barium nitrate
  • miscellaneous: dextrin, iron wire, distilled water

Introduction/Motivation

 

sorcerer resize
(Be ready to show the movie clip and conduct the sparkler demonstration.)
The key instrument for every successful wizard is his/her wand. This wand is chosen by the up-and-coming wizard and is unique to that wizard.
“Harry took the wand. He felt a sudden warmth in his fingers. He raised the wand above his head, brought it swishing down through the dusty air and a stream of red and gold sparks shot from the end like a firework, throwing dancing spots of light onto the walls.”
However, in the muggle world, we never use magic wands, but perhaps use something similar to a wand: SPARKLERS! Why the sparkler? This fantastic magic light-caster is unique to the creator, and ignites with brilliant colors, just as Harry’s wand did for him. Additionally, muggles (students) usually find bright flares and colors of light to be exciting and entertaining. The only twist is that our muggle chemists understand the chemistry at work.
Can you think of other examples of real-life magic wands? Three real-life engineering examples come to mind when casting muggle spells: welding rods, magnetism by inductance, and stir rods. (These examples offer a starting point for real-life presentations; teachers are encouraged to develop additional examples.) These might not seem exciting, but they offer a practical perspective on how science allows us to create new things, move objects and whisk chemicals.
Pyrotechnics and Engineering—The scientific concepts of reaction rates, Gibb’s free energy, process chemistry and metallurgy are all embedded in this activity. Where do these fit in engineering disciplines and what types of engineers might use these scientific concepts? The answer is simple—chemical, metallurgical, mechanical, and explosives engineers.

Think about the ingredients used for fireworks. Many types of engineers who have developed processes to extract, process and fabricate these materials to create the end product.
  • Chemical engineers use their understanding of physical (chemistry, physics) and life sciences (biology, microbiology, biochemistry) to develop systems to process raw chemicals into usable or more valuable materials. Think about the binding resin used in fireworks. Some resins come from corn, but the actual ingredient does not look like corn.
  • Metallurgical engineers use physical science concepts to develop methods for extracting metals from raw ore, and processes and treatments for creating metal alloys of varying compositions and mechanical properties.
  • Mechanical engineers use physics and metallurgy (material science) in combination to analyze and develop mechanical systems. Conveyor systems, rotary components (shafts, gears, belts) and control systems (electrical process control devices) are all needed to run successful processing plants to make the ingredients used in this lab.
  • Explosives engineers use principles from chemistry, physics, and material science to design, develop and regulate pyrotechnics.

Procedure

Background
These procedures are suitable for class sizes of 15-20 students. Depending on equipment and availability of other tools, the procedures may need to be altered.
This activity is designed to reinforce chemistry concepts in the following subtopics: stoichiometry, chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and kinetics. It also is geared toward teaching students practical laboratory practices and application of science concepts while relating them to engineering. Students often forget why they learn topics and this activity provides a relevant and practical twist that revives memories and sparks interest.
Practical applications of scientific theories (for example, engineering) are often hard for students. Typically, one does not know where to start or how to begin. However, using basic scientific principles and applying a logical sequence of steps for problem solving, anything is possible. For instance, sparkler fabrication requires a precise mixture of chemical compounds, as do the precise words chosen by a wizard when chanting spells. How do these sparklers and spells come about? Careful observation and a base knowledge of chemistry or wizardry is the key requirement.

Teachers should read the full background HERE.
Before the Activity

  • Purchase enough of the sparkler chemical ingredients.
  • Gather materials and make copies of the W&C Student Lab Handout.
  • Make one or more sparklers for the Day 1 teacher muggle magic wand demonstration, using the materials and procedures detailed in this document.
  • For the teacher demonstration, set up a stationary lighter or Bunsen burner on a standard lab surface/table, and have ready one or more sparklers.
  • For the student lab, set up three or four stations with hot plates, stirring rods, beakers, distilled water and pre-measured dextrin. If possible, provide one hair dryer per station.
  • Inorganic ingredients must remain under fume hood. One scooper per ingredient.
DAY 1: Introduction, Fabrication and Problem Set
  1. Open the activity with a brief introduction about wizardry, chemistry, pyrotechnics, and engineering.
  2. To focus the class on the activity objective, show a short video clip of Harry Potter choosing his wand.
  3. Lead a class discussion, as described in the Assessment section.
  1. Conduct a muggle magic wand demonstration. NOTE: This presentation should take no longer than 20 minutes. Demonstration suggestion:
  • On a standard lab surface/table with students in their seats, have ready one or more sparklers and either a stationary lighter or Bunsen burner.
  • Over an open flame (from the stationed lighter or Bunsen burner) chant a magic spell, waive the wand as Harry Potter would, and ignite the sparkler. (SHOWMANSHIP IS EVERYTHING!!!)
  • With the sparkler lit, tell the students “You are going to make your own magic wand!” and transition into the activity objectives and safety precautions.
Overall Laboratory Instructions Provided by Teacher:
  1. Direct students to get their appropriate protective equipment (goggles, aprons, gloves etc.) for the laboratory, and to put on their lab aprons and safety goggles.
  2. Direct the class to organize into groups of three student each. Pass out the lab handout.
  3. Assign teams each a sparkler number that corresponds to a particular “recipe.”
  4. Assign a group name or number for sparkler labeling.
  5. Following instructions on the lab handout, have each group begin mixing and heating the starch solution, and proceed in a safe manner (observing the laboratory safety rules).
  6. One group at a time, under the fume hood, have students measure the inorganic ingredients and pour them into the starch mixture.
  7. Then have teams move back to their stations to continue following the lab handout instructions.
  8. Once all groups are finished making their sparklers, bake them before Day 2.
Student Procedures (also provided on the Student Lab Handout):
  1. Place 9 g of dextrin in a 150 ml beaker and add distilled water.
  2. While stirring, heat the starch mixture gently; heat until it makes a paste.
  3. Using separate weighing dishes under the fume hood, measure to the nearest gram the listed ingredients.
  4. Remove the beaker from the heat, add inorganic ingredients to the starch solution and stir. Perform this step under the fume hood until the mixture is uniform.
  5. Pour/scrape the entire mixture into a test tube.
  6. Quickly, dip the iron wire into the test tube, making sure to have an even coat along the length of the submerged wire.
  7. Pull the coated wire out of the test tube and begin drying the paste using a hair dryer positioned approximately 10 cm from the coated wire.
  8. During drying, rotate the wire to keep the paste on the wire.
  9. Once the mixture is no longer runny, stand the coated wire in the test tube rack.
  10. To dry thoroughly, place the rack in a 120° C oven for one to three hours.
  11. Outside, use a lighter to ignite the top of the coated wire. Let the chemistry begin!
Student Lab Handout Problem Set:
  • While students are waiting to measure ingredients to make their sparklers, have them work on the problem set in the lab handout.
  • Require students to complete all handout questions and problems before they are allowed to participate in the wizardry duel on Day 2. NOTE: The 90-miniute period should include plenty of time to complete the handout, but if not, have students finish the handout as homework.
DAY 2: Demonstration and Post-Activity Discussion
  1. Ask students to put on their lab aprons and safety goggles.
  2. Pass out sparklers to each group and instruct students to walk outside the school building.
  3. When outside, divide the class into two groups, based on sparkler type 1 or 2.
  4. Have students line-up in two rows facing each other and prepare for a duel. NOTE: Students are allowed to take on any wizardry poses they like.
  5. Instructor and one volunteer begin lighting the sparklers. Students then light the sparklers next to them. As needed, re-light the sparklers.
  6. Sit back and watch the magic at hand!!!

Safety Issues

  • CAUTION!! The ingredients is this lab are reactive when exposed to certain conditions so handle them only as instructed and with care. Following the instructions ensures that the materials are safe for handling.
  • Students are to wear safety goggles and aprons on both testing days.
  • Use spare containers to store waste. Make sure all waste is disposed of according to appropriate state and local guidelines.

Troubleshooting Tips

Experiment with both sparkler chemistries. Depending on intensity or color, you may want to change the compositions.

Assessment

Pre-Activity Assessment

Opening Class Discussion: Open with one of the following questions. Refer to the W&C Introduction Discussion Questions & Answers. To help stimulate their minds, encourage students to participate as the teacher adds in the answers.
  • Can you create science magic with chemistry?
  • How would you make a magic wand in this science laboratory?

Activity Embedded Assessment

Activity Problem Set Handout: Have students complete the W&C Student Lab Handout prior to Day 2 of the activity. The eight problems are designed to test students’ knowledge of the associated chemistry topics. Additionally, the problem set serves as a link to bring practical application and theory together by illustrating how theory is applied. For fun, require students to research common spells and charms and decide (as a team) which they will use during the duel.
Post-Activity Assessment
Concluding Class Discussion: After the duel demonstration of the sparklers, lead a discussion with students to reiterate topics discussed in the handout’s problem set. Refer to the attached W&C Post-Duel Discussion Questions & Answers. Also incorporate additional observations that may be linked to specific theory.

Activity Extensions

Have teams research how they would improve the burn rate and color of their sparklers (wands). Require students to submit two-page (maximum) reports that includes reliable references.

Additional Resources

Engineering Out of Harry Potter. Projectiles, acids and bases, and other hands-on lessons from the University of Houston that explore the chemistry and engineering behind the wizardry taught at Hogwart’s.

Harry Potter’s World. The National Library of Medicine’s traveling exhibit on Renaissance science, magic & medicine includes classroom activities on such things as Boggart and Fear in Harry Potter.

The Chemistry of Sparklers. Short blog post plus graphic from the United Kingdom on the compounds that give sparklers their colors.

Making Sparklers. A how-to guide from the American Chemical Association.

Show students additional Harry Potter movie clips that show magic wands in use, such as the following:

  • Harry Potter 5 Duel (Voldemort vs. Dumbledore) (2:44 min) at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SWpHRwkBLUo
  • Harry Potter – Dueling Club (4:57 min) at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vEPhYhKdJ7k

References

Chase, Malcolm W. Jr., NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 4th edition. Woodbury, NY: American Institute of Physics, 1998.

Copes, Jane Snell, “The Chemical Wizardry of J.K. Rowling,” Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 83, No. 10, October 2006, pp. 1479-1483. Accessed December 4, 2011. (Source of answers for introduction discussion questions)

Keeney, Allen, Christina Walters, Richard D. Cornelius, “Making Sparklers: An Introductory Laboratory Experiment,” Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 72, No. 7, July 1995, pp. 652-653. DOI: 10.1021/ed072p652

Lide, David R., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009-10.

Rowling, J.K., “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone.” New York, NY: Scholastic, Inc., 1997, pg. 85.

Shakhashiri, Bassam Z. “Chemical of the Week: Fireworks.” Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Accessed December 4, 2011. http://www.scifun.org

Other Related Information

Additional Educational Standards Met—This lesson also meets the 2010-11 advanced placement chemistry requirements of North Shore Senior High School (Houston TX):
Unit 1: Chemistry Fundamentals
  • Manipulate chemical quantities
  • Solve problems using dimensional analysis
  • Demonstrate safe laboratory practices
Unit 2: Stoichiometry
  • Write and balance chemical equations
  • Calculate the masses of reactants and products using chemical equations
  • Demonstrate the use of limiting reagents in stoichiometric calculations
Units 6 and 7: Thermochemistry, Thermodynamics and Equilibria
Unit 8: Chemical Kinetics
  • Provide a molecular explanation for the factors that affect the rate of a reaction: nature of reactants, surface area, concentration, physical state and catalysis
Source: Zumdahl, S. S. and Zumdahl, S. A. Chemistry (5th edition). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 2000.

Contributors

Marc Bird, Eugene Chiappetta

Copyright

© 2013 by Regents of the University of Colorado; original © 2011 University of Houston

Acknowledgements

This digital library content was developed by the University of Houston’s College of Engineering under National Science Foundation GK-12 grant number DGE 0840889. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the NSF and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.

Last modified: December 30, 2014

Submit a Comment

By clicking the "Submit" button you agree to the eGFI Privacy Policy.